by David Hartman
A great deal of my theological reflections have grown in discussion with the Ecumenical Fraternity. This discussion began when the Rev. Coos Schoneveld was here in Jerusalem, and has continued over the years. One’s theological thinking can take on a different clarity when it is presented before another person.
History and Reality of the Term
by Kirsten Hoffgren Pedersen
With the December 1989 issue of its magazine, the National Geographic Society of Washington, D.C., published another of its fine maps, this time in the series “Special Places of the World.” That map bears the title “The Holy Land.”
The Society apparently forgot to ask for advice from two groups of people who scorn the name. Continue reading
by Halvor Ronning
A long spiritual pilgrimage would be required of most Christians today before they would consider calling themselves “Christian Zionists.” So it was with this writer, who was trained at a seminary where “replacement theology” was predominant — the teaching that the Church has replaced the People of Israel and that therefore the Land of Israel is no longer theologically significant. In contrast, a Christian Zionist is a Christian who looks with favor on the Jewish return to Zion precisely because of the biblical significance of this return.
by Moshe Greenberg
I want to begin with a few ideas that are not mine, and follow them with a statement of my own thinking on the subject. The opening thoughts are culled from two publications: The Jerusalem Colloquium on Religion, Peoplehood, Nation and Land (Jerusalem, 1970), edited by M.H. Tanenbaum and R.J.Z. Werblowsky, containing the proceedings of a meeting held October 30 November 8, 1970; and the Union Seminary Quarterly Review, published in New York City (volume 26, Summer 1971), in which there is a discussion on “Jewish Self-Understanding and the Land and State of Israel.” The main paper is by the late Uri Tal and is responded to by J.J. Petuchowski, R.L. Rubenstein and A. Herzberg. These represent some of the various Jewish reactions and attitudes toward the State and its possible theological significance or lack thereof.
by Moshe Weinfeld
Matthew 23 constitutes, as is known, a charge sheet against the Pharisees. The main charge is hypocrisy. The author compiled all sorts of traditions and structured them in a way that would enhance the image of insincerity and hypocrisy. The chapter may be divided into three main parts: 1) the programmatic section (Mt 23:1-12); 2) seven passages that open with “woe to hypocrites” (Mt 23:13-30); and 3) a concluding section about the doom of Jerusalem (Mt 23:31-39). Continue reading
by Menahem Kister
Study of the Gospels makes it increasingly clear that their fundamental stratum must be read as a Jewish text, to be understood within the context of Second Temple Judaism, its halakhic outlook, its beliefs and concepts, its midrashic techniques and ways of argumentation, and the vocabulary and style of the texts it produced. However, the original Jewish outlines of the traditions from which the Gospels are formed have become blurred in the Christian version of these traditions. The following pages will examine a passage that provides a good example, namely the story of the plucking of grain on the Sabbath. Continue reading